Angličtina pro zahrádkáře

Cvičení k lekci 12

doplněk k časopisu Zahrádkář 12/2008 str. 48

Woody plants - Trees and shrubs

Trees and shrubs are the backbone of your landscape. They are used as screens, backgrounds and accents. Trees are used for shade, and for fruit.
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Tree: A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as woody plant that has secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk (kmen) with clear apical dominance. Woody plants that do not meet these definitions by having multiple stems and/or small size, are called shrubs. Compared with most other plants, trees are long-lived, some of them getting to be several thousand years old and growing to up to 115 m (375 ft) high.
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The earliest trees were tree ferns and horsetails (přesličky), which grew in vast (rozlehlých) forests in the Carboniferous Period; tree ferns still survive (přetrvávají, přežívají), but the only surviving horsetails are not of tree form. Later, in the Triassic Period, conifers, ginkgos, cycads and other gymnosperms appeared, and subsequently flowering plants in the Cretaceous Period (období křídy). Most species of trees today are flowering plants (Angiosperms) and conifers.
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A small group of trees growing together is called a grove (háj, lesík) or copse (mlází), and a landscape covered by a dense growth of trees is called a forest. A forest of great age is called old growth forest or ancient woodland (in the UK). A young tree is called a sapling.
The tree has been and still is a popular cultural symbol in most of the world. Common icons are the World tree and the tree of life.
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Shrub: A shrub or bush is distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 5-6 m (15-20 ft) tall. Small, low shrubs such as lavender, periwinkle (barvínek, brčál) and thyme are often termed subshrubs.
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An area of cultivated shrubs in a park or garden is known as a shrubbery.
Shrubs in common garden practice are generally broad-leaved plants, though some smaller conifers such as Mountain Pine and Common Juniper are also shrubby in structure. Shrubs can be either deciduous or evergreen.
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ash jasan
beech buk
birch bříza
elder bez
fir jedle
hazel líska
hornbeam habr
jumper jalovec
larch modřín
linden, lime tree lípa
locust akát
maple javor
oak dub
older olše
pine borovice
plane-tree platan
poplar topol
sallow vrba jíva
spruce smrk
walnut ořešák
willow vrba

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